Cindy Bandle Youth Critics Handbook 2010-2011

February 11, 2011 in Cindy Bandle Young Critics by Cindy-Bandle-Young-Critics


Cindy Avila

Francis Parker High School

Chevelle Blackburne

Kenwood Academy

Catherin Carini

Loyola Academy

Nora Cowlin

The Latin School of Chicago

Olivia Daniels

Lincoln Park High School

Brittany Garrett

Providence High School

Ebony Harris

St. Scholastica Academy

Karina Kim

Roycemore High School

Genesis Martinez

John Hancock High School

Yesica Miguel

World Language High School

Danielle Palermo

Foreman High School

Michele Popadich

Roycemore High School

Kwynn Riley

Kenwood Academy

Vanity Robinson

St. Scholastica Academy

Willa Sachs

Lane Tech High School

Caroline Ullman

Whtiney M. Young Magnet High School

Lorena Vaca

World Language High School


Congratulations and welcome to the 2010-2011 Cindy Bandle Young Critics! This is the fourth year of this exciting collaboration between the Association for Women Journalists and Goodman Theatre. Over the course of the next seven months you will see the Goodman’s entire season of shows, submit critiques and features of plays and attend bi-monthly Saturday workshops on writing, journalism and issues pertinent to women and criticism. You will also have the opportunity to interview directors, actors, playwrights and other artists associated with Goodman Theatre productions. We’re so excited that you’ve decided to spend the year with us and we can’t wait to get to know you!

This handbook will help you learn a little bit about Goodman Theatre, the Association for Women Journalists and the women you will be working with throughout the program.

There are also some forms in the back that we’ll need you to bring back to us at our next meeting, Saturday, Nov. 6 at 10:30 a.m. If you have any questions about anything in this handbook or at any time during the year, please feel free to ask.

Again, we’re so glad you’re here with us! We look forward to a fun, productive season.


Named “the best regional theater in the U.S.” by TIME magazine in May 2003, the Goodman is Chicago’s oldest and largest not-for-profit theater company. It has an annual operating budget of $16 million, 23,000 season subscribers, an 81-member board of trustees and a full-time staff of 110. More than 150 guest artists—actors, directors, playwrights, designers, composers, lyricists, choreographers and musicians—come to work at the Goodman each season.

The Goodman was founded in 1925 as a memorial to Kenneth Sawyer Goodman, a young Chicago playwright who died in the 1918 flu epidemic. The theater was originally administered by The Art Institute of Chicago and, until 1969, was home to both a repertory company and a school of drama. The training program eventually moved to DePaul University and, in 1977, the repertory company incorporated as the Chicago Theatre Group (CTG). Plans to build a state-of-the-art theater complex began to take shape in the 1980s, and on Nov. 9, 2000, the new Goodman Theatre opened its doors in the heart of Chicago’s North Loop Theatre District. The complex houses the 850-seat, proscenium-style Albert Ivar Goodman Theatre; the 400-seat, courtyard-style Owen Bruner Goodman Theatre; and all of the Goodman’s administrative offices. Only our scene shop remains off-site.

During the late ‘70s and early ‘80s, the Goodman was best known for the creative partnership of artistic director Gregory Mosher and playwright David Mamet.  Several of Mamet’s works, including American Buffalo and Glengarry Glen Ross, had their American premiere at the Goodman.  In celebration of this playwright’s unique contribution to the American theater, the Goodman’s 2005/2006 season included the David Mamet Festival, featuring productions of A Life in the Theatre and Romance, as well as several evenings of one-act performances.

In 1986, when Robert Falls joined the Goodman as its new artistic director, the theater began to redefine its artistic mission.  Now, as we celebrate Mr. Falls’ 23rd season at the Goodman, the theater remains committed to presenting freshly-conceived productions of classical and modern dramas such as King Lear, Pericles, Dollhouse, The Trojan Women, The Seagull, Heartbreak House, and Long Day’s Journey into Night, and as well as new works by contemporary playwrights such Luis Alfaro, Alan Ayckbourn, Amy Freed, Rebecca Gilman, Alan Gross, Noah Haidle, Kenneth Lonergan, Donald Margulies, Charles Mee, Richard Nelson, Lynn Nottage, August Wilson and Tracey Scott Wilson.  In addition to its continued dedication to the canon, the Goodman has begun an exciting international initiative by collaborating with theatre companies from around the world. The Goodman is currently preparing its fourth Latino Theatre Festival, showcasing new works and performances presented in Spanish and English by highly acclaimed international and local Latino artists. Another prominent component of the initiative came between January and March of 2009 when the Goodman mounted the Eugene O’Neill Festival, a collaboration between theatre companies from the United States, Brazil and the Netherlands. Complementing the Goodman’s production season is comprehensive community and educational programming that includes free matinee performances for Chicago Public High School students, the General Theatre Studies Program for Chicago youth, the Cindy Bandle Young Critics Program for 11th grade female journalists, free workshops for Chicagoland teachers and a wide variety of special events, open to the public.

The Goodman is sometimes described as a “director’s theater,” reflecting the fact that season productions are selected according to the special interests of our resident and guest directors.  The Goodman is distinguished nationally by the unusual depth and diversity of its artistic collective, which includes Artistic Director Robert Falls; Associate Producer Steve Scott; Associate Director Frank Galati; Resident Directors Chuck Smith and Mary Zimmerman; Resident Associate Henry Godinez; and Artistic Associates Brian Dennehy and Regina Taylor.

Recent guest artists at the Goodman have included directors Moisés Kaufman, Pam MacKinnon, Harold Prince, Steve Robman, Phillip Seymour Hoffman, Bartlett Sher, Tommy Tune, Michael Wilson, and Kate Whoriskey; playwrights Edward Albee, Ron Hutchinson, Craig Lucas, Terrence McNally, Arthur Miller, Richard Nelson, Lynn Nottage, Sarah Ruhl, Doug Wright, and Karen Zacarías; composers Philip Glass, Adam Guettel, John Kander, Jonathan Kreisberg, Gustavo Leone, and Stephen Sondheim; choreographers John Carrafa, Randy Duncan, Marcela Lorca, and Dianne McIntyre; designers Robert Brill, Mara Blumenfeld, Linda Buchanan, Riccardo Hernandez, Jim Ingalls, Michael Philippi, Mark Wendland, Michael Yeargan, and Catherine Zuber; and actors David Cale, Jeff Daniels, Brian Dennehy, Frances Fisher, Scott Glenn, Carla Gugino, Irma P. Hall, Cherry Jones, Stacy Keach, Stephen Lang, Linda Lavin, Harry Lennix, Jefferson Mays, Matthew Modine, Michele Pawk, Chita Rivera, Marco Rodriguez, Pablo Schreiber, Frank Wood, and Harris Yulin.

Newcomers to the Goodman are sometimes surprised to discover that, instead of heading home at the end of the day, many of our staff spend their evenings and weekends writing plays, acting, directing, designing, stage managing and producing in Chicago’s thriving off-Loop theater community.  The Goodman’s executive director, Roche Schulfer, is a nationally-recognized arts advocate and has served as chairperson of both the American Arts Alliance and the Illinois Arts Alliance.  Several staff members are on the faculties of local colleges and universities.  Still others are involved in such important causes as Season of Concern/Equity Fights AIDS.  By encouraging frequent communication and collaboration across a highly diverse theater community, these kinds of outside activities provide an invaluable opportunity for enrichment and renewal.

Over the years, Goodman productions have been honored with numerous Joseph Jefferson Awards (the local equivalent of the Tony Awards) and, in 1992, the Goodman received the Tony Award for Outstanding Regional Theater. In 1999, Robert Falls’ production of Death of a Salesman won four Tony Awards, including Best Director of a Play and Best Revival of a Play, as well as four Joseph Jefferson Awards, including Best Direction of a Play and Best Production of a Play. Falls’ Broadway production of Long Day’s Journey into Night received three 2003 Tony Awards, including Best Revival of a Play, and three Drama Desk Awards, including Outstanding Director of a Play. Goodman Artistic Collective members Frank Galati and Mary Zimmerman are also Tony Award-winning directors. Most recently, playwright Lynn Nottage won the Pulitzer Prize for Drama with her play, Ruined, a Goodman commission and co-production with the Manhattan Theatre Club.


The Association for Women Journalists (AWJ)-Chicago supports women in journalism and promotes the respectful treatment of women by the news media. We are a nonpartisan, not-for-profit organization. We offer members, which include men, a network that we hope offers a little bit of sanity in a crazy industry.

AWJ-Chicago is comprised of working journalists, academics and students from national, local and regional news outlets and all the major journalism schools in the area. It includes women and men involved in every aspect of the business and across all mediums.

You could say that the organization was born in protest. The first AWJ in Dallas-Ft. Worth was founded in 1988 by a group of women objecting to a demeaning promotional campaign for a local newspaper. Female employees of the paper petitioned to halt the ads but were largely ignored. The lack of response to their requests pointed to the need for an organization to help improve media representation of women and to improve the position of women employed by the industry so that similar incidents would not occur in the future. The first meeting to discuss the employees’ outrage was the start of something much bigger. Most of the Texas women belonged to the Journalism and Women Symposium (JAWS), a national professional organization that meets once a year. They fashioned their group after the JAWS model and scaled the group’s events for the local environment.

Chicago’s AWJ chapter was started in 1993 and fashioned after the Dallas-Ft. Worth group. Our first meeting was organized by Michelle Stevens, Cindy Richards, Susy Schultz, Mary Galligan and Adrienne Drell. It was held at Northwestern University’s Medill School of Journalism thanks to Mary Dedinsky, who opened the school’s doors to us. The meeting attracted more than 60 women—more than half of whom handed over $25 checks to become the group’s founding members. Over the years, the Chicago chapter has grown along with other AWJ chapters.

Since its start in 1993 AWJ-Chicago has organized and sponsored numerous timely discussions and events. To name a few: the Off-The-Record Breakfast series included conversations with ACLU president Nadine Strossen, civil rights lawyer and scholar Lani Guinier, U.S. Appellate Court Judge Ilana Rovner and others. Annual meeting speakers have been Carol Marin, Mary Schmich, Pam Zekman, Mary Mitchell, Danice Kern, Lynn Sweet, Felicia Middlebrooks, Kirsten Scharnberg, Jodi Rudoren, Diann Burns, Tracy Baim and Melody Spann-Cooper. Panel discussion topics have covered handling racism and sexism in sources, benefits of photographer/writer teaming, negotiating within your newsroom, the future of online journalism and other relevant issues.


Goodman Theatre

170 North Dearborn Street

Chicago, IL 60601

Administrative Office:                                                                    312.443.3811

Administrative Office Fax Machine:                                           312.443.3821

Goodman Theatre

Willa Taylor

Director of Education and Community Programs

Teresa Rende                                                                               312.443.5581

Education and Community Programs Assistant

Kristin Aardsma                                                                          312.443.3811 x1432

Education and Community Programs Interns

Association for Women Journalists

Claire Bushey

Cheryl Corley

Elena Ferrarin

Michelle Holmes

Carla Johnson

Valerie Johnson

Gwen Osborne

Dawn Raftery

Susy Schultz

Meg Tebo

Joanne Von Alroth

Young Critics 2010-2011 Schedule


10/23 Sat.                  Workshop – Introductions and see matinee of Candide


11/5 Fri.                      Practice Review of The Seagull Due

11/6 Sat.                    Workshop – Discuss The Seagull, GoogleDocs, Introduction to

Arts Criticism (AWJ)

11/20 Sat. Workshop – Join Girl Scouts Event (Goodman)

A behind the scenes look and discussion of A Christmas Carol

with Matt Chandler, Asst. Production Manager

11/28 Sun.                 Press Night for A Christmas Carol


12/3                            1st DRAFT A Christmas Carol to Google Docs

12/4 Sat. Workshop – Discuss ACC and reviews

Features vs. critiques (AWJ)

12/14                          2nd DRAFT A Christmas Carol to Google Docs

12/18 Sat.                  Workshop – Intro to Interviewing (AWJ/Goodman)

12/19                          FINAL DRAFT A Christmas Carol to Google Docs


1/22 Sat.                    Workshop – Developing new work (Goodman)

1/23                             Press Night for Trinity River Plays

1/28                             1st DRAFT Trinity River Plays to GoogleDocs


2/4                               2nd DRAFT Trinity River Plays to GoogleDocs

2/5 Sat.                      Workshop – Discuss Trinity River Plays and reviews (AWJ)

2/11                            FINAL DRAFT Trinity River Plays to Google Docs

2/13                            Press Night for Mary

2/19 Sat.                    Workshop – Critics Role in Educating Audiences (AWJ/Goodman)

How/Should critics help prepare audiences for difficult/

experimental/coercive works

2/25                            1st DRAFT Mary to GoogleDocs


3/4                               2nd DRAFT Mary to GoogleDocs

3/5 Sat.                      Workshop – Discuss Mary and reviews (AWJ)

3/11                            FINAL DRAFT Mary to Google Docs

3/13                            Press Night for God of Carnage

3/19 Sat.                    Workshop – Feature writing for print/blogs (AWJ/Goodman)


4/1                               Outline/1st Draft El Nogalar Feature to GoogleDocs

4/3                               Press Night for El Nogalar

4/9 Sat.                      Workshop – Discuss El Nogalar and Feature writing

4/10                            2nd Draft El Nogalar Feature to Google Docs

4/22                            FINAL DRAFT El Nogalar to Google Docs


4/23 Sat                     Workshop – Putting Together a Professional Portfolio (AWJ)

4/30 Sat.                    Workshop – Putting Together a Professional Portfolio (AWJ)


5/8                               Press Night for Stage Kiss

5/13                            1st DRAFT Stage Kiss to GoogleDocs

5/14 Sat.                    Workshop – Reviewing for Broadcast (AWJ)

5/20                            FINAL DRAFT Stage Kiss to Google Docs

5/21 Sat. Workshop – Program Wrap-up, Evaluation, Party

NOTE: Because this group meets only twice a month, we want to stress the utmost importance of attending each and every meeting of the Cindy Bandle Youth Critics. Without these meetings, the young critics can not get the deserved attention from their AWJ mentors. Also, please remember that each young critic and each mentor have taken time out of their busy schedules to meet with you on their day off. That said, we must implement a strict policy where any more than three absences will result in dismissal of the program.

Additionally, we want to remind young critics to arrange their schedules so that they can attend the shows on Press Nights, which are always on the Sunday before Opening Night. It is important for the young critics to get the full experience of being members of the press, which is why we highly encourage the young women to attend Press Nights as opposed to any other show time.

Guide to AP Style

Dr. Michael S. Sweeney, Utah State University

Why AP style? You must know Associated Press style if you intend to get a job in print journalism. The stylebook is widely used and contains much that will prevent writers from making errors of fact, grammar and punctuation.

A publication’s use of a particular style provides consistency, accuracy, and tone. For example, the styles of The New York Times and Rolling Stone differ significantly. The AP style falls somewhere in between, aiming at a general audience with a tone that is neither too elite nor too common. Although you won’t find an explanation of the logic of AP style in the stylebook, it has been my experience that AP likes information presented so it is:

1. Totally accurate.
2. Totally clear to anyone with a high school education.
3. As tight as can be, given No. 1 and No. 2.
4. Inoffensive, unless there is an overriding reason, central to a significant news story, to include potentially offensive words or concepts.

Important entries from the AP Stylebook:

a, an – You use the article “an” in front of words that sound as if they begin with a vowel, regardless of how they are spelled. So, you would say it is an honor to be here today. (Hear the flat-A sound that begins the word? It sounds as if it should be spelled AWN-or.) Or, if you already know this rule, you could say this is a useless exercise. (Hear the “y” sound in “useless?”)

academic degrees — Put an apostrophe in bachelor’s degree and master’s degree. This is to show possession. The degree belongs to the bachelor or master (that’s you). Even when shortened to bachelor’s and master’s (no “degree” afterward), you keep the apostrophe.

addresses — Abbreviate the words street, avenue and boulevard (think S-A-B), but only if they appear after a numbered address. Also abbreviate compass directions, but only if they appear with a numbered address. So, you’d write 50 S. Court St., but if you leave off the house number, you’d write South Court Street. Got it? Never abbreviate drive, highway, place or any of the other words that might follow an actual street name such as Court, Union, Ventura, Lombard, Pennsylvania or whatever.

affect, effect — Ninety-nine times out of 100, if the word you use is a verb, spell it with an “a,” and if it is a noun, spell it with an “e.” In these two usages, affect means to influence and effect means the result of an action—and those are by far the most common uses. Examples? Student: How will this affect (try substituting the word “influence”) my grade? Teacher: I don’t know what the effect (try substituting the word “result”) will be.

a.m., p.m. — Recognize that 8 p.m. tonight is redundant. So, write 8 tonight, or 8 p.m. today. Better still: 8 p.m. Monday.

Anglican Communion — This is the first church in the AP Stylebook. Read every church entry carefully. Each religion has its own lexicon, and if you screw it up you make enemies.

Bible — Capitalize when you mean the black book in American hotel rooms everywhere. Lowercase when you use the term as slang for an authoritative source. Example: Elements of Style is my bible.

burglary, larceny, robbery, theft — Ooooo, tricky. There is a difference between a burglar and a robber, and you have to know it. Your stylebook gives you a definition of these terms, so let me give you examples of how to use them, all taken from the same scenario.

  • Larceny: If I leave my B-52 CD’s on the floor outside my office door and you take them (without breaking into my office and without threatening me), then you have committed larceny, also known as simple theft, and you are a thief.
  • Burglary: If you break into my office (or even pass through the unlocked door without my permission) and take the B-52 CD’s off my desk, but did not threaten me, you are a burglar.
  • Robbery: If you see me carrying my B-52 CD’s and are overcome by an uncontrollable urge to possess them (hey, I wouldn’t blame you), and you demand them from me and make a real or implied threat, you are a robber. Sometimes you see the phrase “aggravated robbery” in newspapers. The term means that the robber not only made a threat but also displayed a weapon, such as a gun or knife. This person is still called a robber.

Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints — There are two “t’s” in Latter. Note the hyphen and the lower-case “d.” In Utah, “LDS” or “Mormon” are acceptable in any print-journalism reference because of the familiarity of the audience with the term and the abbreviation.

City Council – Capitalize when referring to a specific City Council, even if the name of the town is not given. Mayor Doug Thompson will ask the City Council to spend more on patrolling.

co- — Sometimes it’s followed by a hyphen, and sometimes it’s not. When the prefix is part of a word indicating occupation, hyphenate, as in co-worker, co-owner. There are no hyphens when the letter “o” is doubled, as in cooperate and coordinate.

collective nouns – In the United States, nouns such as team, Congress, committee and group take singular verbs, such as “is.” These collective nouns also take the pronoun “it” instead of “they.” So, if you’re confused about whether a word such as “team” is an “it” or a “they,” try making up a sentence using the word followed by “is” or “are.” You wouldn’t say “The team are playing well.” Try this, instead: “The team is playing well. It may win this game.” That’s correct.

commas – Place a comma before and after the following when they appear in the middle of a sentence:

  1. A year, if it follows a month and date. Example: I was born on Nov. 6, 1958, in Madison, Wis.
  2. A state, if it follows a city or county name. Example, I was born in Madison, Wis., on Nov. 6, 1958.
  3. An appositive, which means a word or phrase that says the same thing as a word or phrase next to it. Example: I saw my boss, John McFeely, in the hall. (My boss and John McFeely are identical.) However do not place a comma after a title that precedes a name. Example: Executive Editor John McFeely died today.

composition titles – I don’t care whether you italicize or put quotation marks around composition titles. What I want you to notice is which words in the titles of books, plays, movies and TV programs are capitalized, and which are not. AP’s rule is this: Capitalize the first word of any title. Capitalize all words that are four letters or longer. Do not capitalize the articles “a,” “an” and “the.” Do not capitalize conjunctions or prepositions, unless they are four letters or longer. Examples: The Elements of Style; Gone With the Wind (“with” is a preposition, but it is capitalized because of the four-letter rule). So, what do you capitalize? The first word, any word four letters or longer, and all nouns, verbs, adverbs, adjectives and pronouns.

days or dates? – Not apparent in the AP stylebook, but it ought to be. The common rule for publications is to use the days of the week—Monday, Tuesday, etc. —when referring to events within seven days, before or after the publication date. When writing about events more distant, use months and dates, such as “April 30″ and “June 5.” Do not use both. Do not use yesterday, today and tomorrow—if a story were delayed before publication, the time elements would be wrong.

dimensions – Use figures for all numbers that indicate height, weight, width, etc., even for numbers less than 10. Example: The book weighs 2 pounds.

directions and regions – Capitalize words such as North and South if they refer to places you can stand and say, “I am standing in the North/South/West/etc.” That means they are nouns referring to regions, and AP says capitalize them as such. When referring to compass directions, such as “I am walking north,” lower case them.

essential clauses, essential phrases – If you use the word “which” to introduce a phrase or clause, precede it with a comma. Do not precede the word “that” by a comma. Use “which” to introduce non-essential phrases and clauses, which can be eliminated from a sentence without changing its essential meaning (such as in this sentence). See? If you drop the clause “which can be eliminated, etc.,” then the remaining sentence still has the same meaning. Use “that” when you want to use a phrase or clause that cannot be removed from a sentence without changing its meaning (such as in this sentence). If you eliminate the essential clause from that sentence, you are left with “Use ‘that’ when you want to use a phrase or clause.” That gives a clearly different meaning than the original sentence, because you know by now that you want to start some phrases and clauses with “which,” and thus the sentence is illogical. If this causes you problems, let’s talk.

fewer, less – Use fewer for things that you can count. Example: I have fewer quarters than you do. (You can count, “One quarter, two quarters, three quarters.”) Use less for things you cannot count. Example: I have less cash than you do. (You don’t say, “One cash, two cash, three cash.”)

governmental bodies — Read this entry in the AP stylebook carefully to determine when to capitalize names of agencies and departments.

highway designations — These bedevil many journalists, but they’re easy. Capitalize U.S. Highway 89, or U.S. 89. Capitalize Utah Highway 33, but notice that you lowercase the “s” in state Highway 33.

Inc. — Do not precede it with a comma

Islam — Read not only every entry for Christian churches, but also the entries for other religions. Note that a follower of Islam is a Muslim, a change from previous English spelling. Use the word “Islamic” as an adjective for things, as in “Islamic architecture.”

it’s, its — “It’s” is a contraction that means it is, or it has. “Its” means “belonging to it.” Whenever you must choose one or another in a sentence, try inserting the phrase “it is” or “it has.” If one of those pairs makes sense, then use it’s.

Jewish congregations — Jews have temples and synagogues, not churches. Jewish rabbi is redundant. Jewish synagogue is also redundant.

lay, lie — Not as tricky as it might seem. The way I remember the difference is that “lay,” in the present tense, requires an object; in other words (pardon me) you can only “lay” something. The word “lie” in the present tense means recline on a horizontal plane. Examples in the present tense: I lay the book on the table. Now it lies there. In the past tense, lay becomes laid, and lie becomes lay. Examples: I laid the book on the table yesterday. It lay there for several hours before my brother picked it up.

local — A word you almost never need. “He was taken to a local hospital” is silly. Just say “He was taken to a hospital.” Better yet, name the hospital. Similarly, change local schools to Cache Valley schools, or schools in Cache County, or some other phrase that is specific. Remember, specific is better than vague.

majority, plurality — As you know, a majority is at least a tiny bit more than 50 percent. A plurality is the largest percentage of something that is divided at least three ways, and yet is below 50 percent. Example: If Ronald Reagan wins 48 percent of the vote, Jimmy Carter wins 44 percent of the vote and John Anderson wins 6 percent of the vote, then Reagan has a plurality, not a majority.

marshal and Marshall — Commonly confused. Double the “L” in a person’s name.

Mass — Capitalize when referring to the celebration of worship in the Roman Catholic Church. This is a common error.

military titles — Glance at this entry. Realize that most military titles that appear immediately before a person’s name are abbreviated, and all are capitalized. Realize that it will speed your search for the proper abbreviation if you know which branch of the service to look up.

millions, billions — Try to avoid long numbers with lots of zeroes, as in 7,000,000,000. Instead, say 7 billion. Also remember how to tell the difference between 1 million and 1 billion when you’re looking at such a number. 1 million has seven digits, just as the word “million” has seven letters.

months — Never abbreviate months when they do not immediately precede a date. Example: We got married in September last year. However, when the name of a month immediately precedes a date, abbreviate it—but only if the month’s name is six letters or longer. Example: We got married Aug. 6 last year. But, we were divorced March 5.

numerals — This entry is a common source of confusion. Remember the rule of thumb, “Other Uses,” which says, “For uses not covered by these listings: Spell out whole numbers below 10, use figures for 10 and above. Typical examples: They had three sons and two daughters. They had a fleet of 10 station wagons and two buses.” Now, having mastered the rule of thumb, read the exceptions to the rule.

plurals — Note the unusual rule that when you form the plural of a proper noun that ends in a “y,” you usually add an “s,” as in Kennedys, Grammys, Emmys.

possessives — The main AP exception to Strunk and White’s Elements of Style involves forming the possessive of a singular proper noun that ends in “s.” AP says merely add an apostrophe. Examples: Otis’ cookies, Amos’ ice cream, Charles’ chips. And here’s a reminder of something I’m sure most of you already know: to make something that is singular into a possessive, add “’s”; to make something plural into a possessive, first make sure it is plural, usually by verifying that it ends in an “s,” and then add an apostrophe. Here’s a nonsense sentence that illustrates the idea: One dog’s bone is worth two dogs’ ears.

quotations in the news — Do not change words in quotation marks. Those quote marks tell the reader “this is exactly what was said.” Quote marks always appear outside a period, comma, semicolon and colon. When a full-sentence quotation is introduced or followed by attribution, place a comma between them. Examples: I said, “What the heck is going on?” . . . “It’s the state fair,” he said. One exception to the rule is that quotations that are in the form of a question do not need a question mark and a comma—merely a question mark. Example: “What’s going on?” he asked. [Note the lower case "h" in he.] When using a sentence fragment as a quotation, do not set it off with a comma unless the sentence requires one for proper grammar. Example: He said he felt “sicker than a dead frog[no comma here]” after he drank too much tequila. [Note that the only words he actually said were "sicker than a dead frog." The rest of the sentence is a paraphrase, not a quotation, and thus does not have quote marks.]

Satan – He’s uppercase, but devil is not. Neither is satanic. (Ozzy fans, take note.)

savings and loan association– It is not a bank. You cannot call it a bank.

Scot, Scots –People from Scotland are NOT “Scotch.” That’s a drink, and a fine one at that, when lower case.

second reference – Well-known abbreviations are acceptable on second reference. Thus, Internal Revenue Service can become “the IRS” the second time you refer to it. Avoid using unfamiliar abbreviations. If you are writing about the Left-Handed Dogcatchers Association, do NOT refer to it as LHDA on second reference. Instead, call it “the association” or “the group.” And don’t think that putting parentheses around an odd abbreviation makes it OK to use repeatedly. It still looks funny. Here’s an example of what to avoid: the Left-Handed Dogcatchers Association (LHDA) met last night. The LHDA decided to catch some left-handed dogs.

state names – Spell out all names of states in sentences unless they are preceded by a city, county or military base name. Then, according to the chart found with this listing in the AP stylebook, you abbreviate all state names EXCEPT the two states outside the Lower 48 and all continental states that have five or fewer letters in their names. Examples: I lived in Oklahoma. I lived in Tulsa, Okla. I lived in Iowa. I lived in Council Bluffs, Iowa.

temperature – Use figures unless the temperature is zero. Examples: It’s minus 5 degrees. I hope it warms to 9 or 10.

titles — Capitalize formal titles immediately before a name, and do not separate the title from the name by a comma. Examples: I saw President Clinton. I got to meet Pope John Paul II. Titles that appear after a name or standing alone are ALMOST NEVER capitalized. If you’re wondering about those exceptions, see AP, “nobility.” Also note that sometimes a person’s title is set off by commas. In those cases, it is lower case. If you’re wondering when to use a comma between title and name, see “appositives,” or just listen for the natural pause when you say the sentence aloud. If you pause, use a comma. Examples: The president, (PAUSE) Barack Obama, (PAUSE) ate a burger. President (NO PAUSE) Barack Obama got indigestion.

United StatesAbbreviate it as “U.S.” only as an adjective before a noun, as in U.S. hockey team, U.S. economy and U.S. bonds. Otherwise, spell it out: I love the United States.

vice president — No hyphen.

weapons — Unfortunately, copy editors need to know something about weapons because they are mentioned in many stories. Know the difference between a revolver and an automatic. Know correct style for a .45-caliber pistol.

weather term – Recognize that blizzard, cyclone, gale and hurricane have specific meanings.

years – To indicate a decade, add an “s.” to the first year in the decade. Example: In the 1960s, I did a lot of things I don’t remember. If you abbreviate this, do it this way: In the ’60s, I did a lot of . . . Remember that years are never spelled out. Even at the beginning of a sentence, use a figure: 1968 was a good year, I’m told.



To Whom It May Concern:

I hereby consent to have

(print student’s name)

photographed, video taped, audio taped and/or interviewed by staff or the news media when my child is under the supervision of Goodman Theatre and Association for Women Jouranlists staff.  I, as parent/legal guardian, agree to release and hold harmless borth organizations, their members, officials, agents and employees from and against any and all claims, demands, actions, complaints, suits or other forms of liability that shall arise out of, or by reason of, or be caused by the use of my child on television, radio, motion pictures or in the print medium.

Parent/Guardian Signature                                                                            Date

Dear Parent/Guardian -

Your child has an opportunity to attend plays at Goodman Theatre as part of the Cindy Bandle Young Critics. We believe our productions enrich the educational experience and are a wonderful way of engaging young people. We want you to be aware that some of our productions contain adult content. While we believe that the integrity of the artists who create our productions on stage is paramount, we also believe that parents should be able to make informed decisions. We would also like to offer you an opportunity to see any and all the shows your daughters will see.

If you would like to take advantage of this opportunity, please contact the Education Department at 312.443.3811 x1432 or via e-mail at

If you have any questions or concerns about the material onstage please feel free to contact us at any time.

Thank you for allowing us to work with your daughter this season. We think it will be a fantastic year!

Willa J. Taylor

Director, Education and Community Programs

Goodman Theatre

I hereby consent to have

(print student’s name)

attend the 09-10 season of shows at Goodman Theatre. I further agree that I will contact Goodman Theatre’s Education and Community Programs Department should I have any concerns regarding a particular show.

Parent/Guardian Signature                                                                            Date